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At present time, Vietphái nam is still listed aước ao the poor và low developed countries compared khổng lồ others in the area as well as in all over the world.

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However, since early 90s until now, the renovation process of Vietphái mạnh – DOI MOI – has brought many major changes in the society và economy. Vietnam is continuing khổng lồ develop quickly and stably in order khổng lồ integrate inlớn the regional và international community.

The average growth rate of Vietnam’s GDPhường. during last trăng tròn years 1986 – 2005 was 7.5% – 8.5% annually. It was one of the highest growth rates in all over the world.

Obviously, the above sầu mentioned economic development required an equivalent development in education & training. The current education và training system in Vietphái nam is facing huge and urgent challenges in terms of the demand of human regiaidap.inforces training who are highly skilled, especially in the threshold of the integrating period khổng lồ the WTO today.

Besides, because of the limitation of the national human và financial regiaidap.inforces, Vietnamese Government has recognized the developmental dem& such as open learning and distance education in order khổng lồ complete và support other traditional training forms.

In the last ten years, the Vietnamese Government and the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) have assigned Hanoi Open University (HOU) khổng lồ responsible in research & national organization development in every form of non-traditional training, especially in xuất hiện learning và Distance education – OL & DE – lớn satisfy the urgent demvà in human regiaidap.inforces training, which intends khổng lồ serve sầu the industrialization, modernization processes of the country and builds up an educational society.

In order lớn carry out this responsibility, retìm kiếm is necessarily to widely develop the use ICT in training công nghệ. It is not only applied in open learning, but also to tư vấn traditional colleges and being extremely meaningful in the context of international integration of the Vietnamese education and training system.

In 2004 and 2005, HOU had been assigned lớn run a pilot project named: “Developing the use of ICT in E-Training” by the MOET. The center for online instructional technology – COIT – at HOU was the management unit of the project.

Major results of the Pilot Project

Developing the use of ICT in E-Training is a long-term theme of the retìm kiếm. The period of 2004 – 2005 was just only a pilot project initially based on the collection of many results, which had been done by many domestic organizations in the last 5 years.

Nevertheless, there were two principal tasks of the project, that are:

§ Design and create an online training environment on the Website.

§ Produce some of trial electronic materials

PART I – Creating an online training environment

The biggest gap of isolated learners (self taught learners, distance education learners, trang chính education learners, etc…) was the educational environment. Learners basically had a solitary mentality, had not been contacted, và communicated with colleges, lecturers, and friends. They had not also involved any activities of colleges và laông chồng of getting information.

Thus, the online training environment must function to create both synchronous and non-synchronous communication for learners in order to replace the interactions between learners và college, learners và lecturers, learners and classmates.

From these issues, COIT had created a Website và named as FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL, placed at:

http://www.fithou.net.vn

và linked with the main Website of Faculty of IT, HOU:

http://www.fithou.edu.vn

The main functions of FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL included:

1.1. Educational orientation & introduction khổng lồ learners

People could simply access this function to find out information, career training, organizational training, methods of study, & the process of how to lớn register for the courses. Besides the information provided on the Website, people could seek for more needed information through the FAQs system (Frequently Asked Questions System), or through the Contact Us section lớn liên hệ directly with the Webmaster in order to be supported and explained in details. Hence, people who had expectation và need to apply for training courses in FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL would be instructed all the procedures of the registration.

For the long-term training programmes, test và assessment had been required & training certificate would be awarded.

Currently, the Vietnamese MOET has not permitted lớn register online so that learners would be instructed to lớn sover their files (hard copies) lớn colleges khổng lồ be appraised the registration condition. After the appraisal approved, training thẻ, training code và password would be granted khổng lồ learners in order to access the Website.

1.2. Training information function

Every week, all management units in the Faculty were responsible lớn post their information onto the Website before Friday in order lớn announce in time. However, all information about the topic of assignments, examination timetables would be delegated and posted by lecturers who directly monitor these tasks.

Once learners had registered, they would be able lớn access the training information function lớn get the fully information about their courses such as course duration; examination timetable of each unit; face-to-face & online tutorials provided by tutors, who actually work with learners about each unit at 26 local centers within the country; online tutorial schedule of discussions with lecturers & classmates, etc.

1.3. Knowledge delivery function

On the Website or on several associated Websites had placed some electronic materials. There were some không lấy phí electronic materials that had posted right on the Website, so that learners were able to use online or tải về to lớn their PCs to lớn use offline. These materials were created relying on course materials, what had been stipulated by the Academic Board of FITHOU to lớn use officially in the Faculty. Additionally, these electronic materials were designed fine interface, convenient khổng lồ use, & some two-way communication such practice questions, mochồng tests, tự động hóa evaluation tests, etc. This function played a role as a virtual lecturer to lớn learners.

1.4. Forums or virtual classrooms function

This was an extremely important function to lớn tư vấn effectively in E-Training. In this function, two main forums had been designed that called study- forum and exchange- diễn đàn.

The study diễn đàn was a free accessing forum, thus, people could access and read available posts. Moreover, this diễn đàn had been divided in to lớn sub-forums or by topics, which were related to the subjects, course unit in the training curriculum for learners. Each sub-diễn đàn had a moderator who was often a lecturer or a senior student who had been appointed to lớn monitor.

Access lớn the diễn đàn was không tính tiền, however, if learners wanted lớn post his or hers articles onlớn the diễn đàn, they would need lớn register being members và authorized by Webmaster or Web administrator. Members would be allowed to post, modify, and delete their own articles only. Nevertheless, members must have committed lớn comply with forums’ regulations, and the moderator of that particular forum in completely anti spasm would manage content or topic. Therefore, each article needed to be verified quickly through a content censor system before posted.

After one year of testing operation, today, this forums has more than 3,000 members (2,000 from the Faculty population) with almost 300,000 access times & 60,000 posted articles.

In order to lớn create the virtual learning environment, activities & exchanges diễn đàn was also designed beside the learning forums, which included several topics such as: comment; open suggestion; college’s stories and events; news; teams’ activity; English club; music club; many sport club, etc. There were also sub-forums for learners of each region in the country, for example, Quang Binh, Nam Dinh, Tkhô nóng Hoa, etc.

This forum had attracted learners to lớn be interested with the common activities of the college. Many distance learners had indicated that they could not be able lớn come to the main campus in Hanoi in 3, 4 years since registered, however, they go on the forum everyday & vày feel that they are living and studying in the campus.

On the other hvà, the nội dung of this forums were covered mainly about the internal Faculty activities, within the college. Thus, this forum was not permitted to access freely, & only registered members could be allowed lớn access và keep articles. Senior executives would access to the forum weekly in order lớn understand situations và learners’ opinions, và there was also a newsletter utility designed. Every week, all significant news would be summarized & sent directly to lớn email of the Faculty senior executives. This created an effective feedback channel that would be useful in managing và monitoring.

1.5. Online tutorial function

Through the summary of the posted articles on the learning diễn đàn, each topic’s moderator could discover problems, what had been mostly concerned by learners. Then, these problems would be proposed lớn principal lecturer of that particular subject khổng lồ produce online tutorials. The nội dung of online tutorials would include: explaining in detail about the some of the difficult issues if the subject; introducing more skills in doing assignments, exercises; helping learners lớn practice some parts of the subject; etc.

The context of those subjects were also discussed in on-line tutorial chat-rooms weekly or brought inkhổng lồ face-to-face tutorial classes, which had been organized at local tutorial centers. In consequent, it’s not only on-line learners và full time students of FITHOU, but students from other institutions also interested in these kinds of tutorial that FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL arranged & provided.

1.6. Managing student function

The entire information & results of each individual learner were conducted by this function.

In order to ensure the privacy, individual learners (registered learners) could only access to lớn view their own information by logging in through their accounts (with protected password & several questions related to their personal information). Besides, transcripts, score danh mục, etc. were also being conducted and provided with particular security signs.

However, there is currently not any regulation from Government about CA registration, college’s digital signature, so that FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL can only accept learners’ requirement and provide them hardcopies of certificate instead of providing certificates on-line.

With this function, families & organizations had got learners at FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL, who were authorized khổng lồ liên hệ admin in order lớn verify the exact information, results of learners.

This arrangementis very useful for learner in their further study in other institutions or when they apply for job after graduated : These institutions and/or employers can easily verify their study results at FITHOU ( of course with the demvà & consentement of learners )

As at the present time online banking is not yet popular, on the other h&, there are no regulation from the MOET and the Ministry of Finance which allow online payment at Colleges and Universities, so in FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL we have not created the accounting function for the collection of tuition fees or other fees from students.

The organization of online examinations are also not yet realized. All examinations are organized at local tutorial centers – LTC – ( in each region ). Students will have lớn come at scheduled dates & make their tasks under the supervision of examinators of LTCs. The subjects are sent by email directly from the Cyberschool at the main campus, candidates do their tasks in soft copies and skết thúc baông xã to lớn the office also by tin nhắn, or in exam papers (hard copies) collected by examinators & sover baông chồng by post.

The role of LTCs in these exams is only for checking the identity of candidate & controling examination regulations.

This size of examination organization assure all demands of accurate exams and their big advantage is cutting down fees and time for candidates.

PART II – E-Materials for use of OL & DE learners

E-Materials (coursewares) play a very important role in E-training. E-material is not only a traditional courseware registered in CD or VCD which learner can use electronic equipment to read.

E-materials must be able khổng lồ replace a printed (traditional) materials. On the other h&, it must also be able lớn create some man-machine interactions which may substitute a part of the roles of teacher in information delivering as well as in mobilizing và encouraging learners during their self learning process.

E-materials also take care of helping learners in their way of thinking và in practising (especially in practical subjects)

The nội dung of each E-material for some subject include all substances of a traditional courseware for that subject, developed by a teacher-speciadanh sách or a group of specialists in this area of specialty, conforming with the general training curriculum supervised & adopted by the institution.

But when we have had already a good printed material, E-material is neither a set of powerpoint slides show, nor a video tape which allow learners khổng lồ watch to lớn the presentation of the subject only.

An E-material must include these following functions.

2.1. Guide for student about general nội dung and methodology for studying the subject . Selft taught learners always have a big gap : they miss the direct guide and direction of teacher about the goal and meaning in studying every subject, the role và impact of this subject in the total training curriculum, the special methods of study for different subjects.

When producing E-materials, in combining the use of multimedias (text, static picture và graphic, voice and giaidap.infond, animation và video) we can create a “virtual tutor” who will be an important support for learners at their first steps in the way lớn make acquaintance with new subjects.

2.2. Subject information delivery.  For the principal content of the course we can realize only with text & picture, graphics as in traditional printed materials. In the opening and/or the summing up of each part, it will be better if we could add the use of other appropriate medias: voice (of teacher) and giaidap.infond, animation và Clip.That will make the presentation more lifelike và more comprehensive.

Direct links between different part of the course is very useful for learners: they can help them to lớn search easily through the whole material.

In practical subjects it is encouraged to lớn use simulation sofwares for helping student khổng lồ participate actively in the teaching-learning process.

2.3. Auto-evaluation, self examination & self correcting. As in traditional printed materials, at the kết thúc of each part, chapter or at the over of the whole material, the author may create sum up questions and exercises. The important advantage of E-material is that the author can also create a man-machine interactive system for helping learner in evaluation the result of their study. There are many methods for designing the auto-thử nghiệm, auto-evaluation using a data base of questions bank và a system for auto-correction. To animate the learning atmosphere và the mentality of learners, the author of E-material can also use high IT technic khổng lồ create systems of remarks and notes addressed khổng lồ learners after they have sầu completed each test/essay.

2.4. Accessory softwares.  For more convenient for E-material users in case if their PC did not have already essential accessory softwares, in the introduction part of each E-material we have sầu khổng lồ install a mix of necessary softwares needed for opening the CD or VCD (Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player, Acrobat Reader…) & also a short guide about the use of these softwares in the E-material.

The evident advantages of E-materials comparing with printed materials and/or video – cassette tapes are :

* The delivery of information can be done through multimedia: text, picture and graphic, voice & giaidap.infond a, animation và đoạn phim.

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* The existence of man-machine interaction which can substitute a part of the role of teacher và classmates, and which can reduce the isolated psychology for learners.

* Due lớn their small dimension, E-material can be easily preserved or carried with the users in order khổng lồ practize their learning process at anytime, anywhere according to lớn their living và working conditions.

* E-materials can be transferred through FTP or attachment in Email. They can be also kept easily in E-libraries.

* Last but not least : Low cost, only about 20-30% in comparison with printed material.

Experiences learnt from the pilot project

Through the two years running time of the Project of FITHOU CYBERSCHOOL at the FITHOU, we have sầu learnt some precious experiences, which may be of use for further development of the application of ICT tools in DE & OL at higher màn chơi and larger scale in next coming years.

To develop E-Training in a developing country – the case of Vietnam – we must take into lớn trương mục the three main solutions:

* Technological solution

* Human regiaidap.inforce solution

* Systematic Organizational solution.

PART III – Technological solution.

Technology is an important factor in E- Training. Currently in developed country this problem has been solved efficiently based on the recent ICT achievements.

However, as it was mentioned previously in this paper, due khổng lồ limitations in technology and economic, in the context of developing countries we must select & bring together appropriate công nghệ khổng lồ create a simple, convenient system for users as well as easily upgrading to lớn integrate with the world technology in next future.

Virtual university & electronic materials are the two main solutions khổng lồ E-Training & they are built based on computer networking và Internet.

Using many different tools và technologies can develop network applications. The right choices will have sầu great affects on specific application in terms of effectiveness & efficiency.

Presently, there are two major technologies from Microsoft và Sun dominated the networking market. Sun provided a specification on Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) aiming on high-kết thúc UNIX computers and mainframes whereas Microsoft has developed a package products and tools on Windows NT platkhung targeting PCs.

In the context of developing countries, fully package products from Microsoft is suitable & easy to lớn deploy such as Windows 2003 Server (Advanced Server, Data Center Server), SQL Server, Site Server, Exchange Server, Biztalk Server, Application Center, Internet Information Services & Active Server Pages.

Microsoft continuously updates & produces new products & công nghệ, which facilitate the development of E-Training such as di động Information Server, .NET framework. This makes use of programmers from wide range of languages.

However, in specific situations of developing countries, another option is lớn apply similar products from other third vendors. Using other products avoid heavy packages as well as reducing the cost. Programmers must consider applying components from other providers. Before final deployment, they should be kiểm tra và evaluate lớn ensure the compatibility with overall general solutions.

Robust networking deployments are not easy khổng lồ build. Many issues arise such as scalability, maintainability, reliability, security, cost and more. Therefore, successful deployment heavily depends upon giải pháp công nghệ & people building systems.

Recently the MOET Vietnam giới has opened an education portal at: http://el.edunet.vn

In co-operating with some wellknown american institutions, in this site are posted number of open coursewares for free use of all learners. The biggest difficulties for learner when approaching these materials are:

* The nội dung of materials are not quite appropriate with Vietnamese training curriculum & the presentation style is a bit different with the traditional presentation in Vietnamese literature.

* Most of the coursewares provided by foreign institutions are in English: for Vietnamese learners it is also an important barrier which will be not be able khổng lồ overcome easily in a short time.

It would be very useful if we could organize khổng lồ make adaptations, to lớn produce Vietnamese versions using this rich giaidap.inforce of documentation: this is also an urgent task for E-training technicians và experts.

PART IV. Skilled Human Regiaidap.inforces.

In general, the levels of technology & economics in developing countries are still low. However, it is not the most challenge factor because with sufficient budget (not too large) new giải pháp công nghệ equipment will be supplemented và upgraded quickly. The biggest barrier, which cannot be overcome in a short period, is skilled labor.

In order khổng lồ create a Virtual University/ Cyberschool, there is a need of skillful programmers and administrators who can carry out important tasks as follow:

– Web Site designers: kiến thiết structure, content, and style

– Webmaster: manage overall functions

– Sub system administrators

– Forum administrators, moderators, online tutors

Constructing electronic materials also can be done neither by a professional teacher nor a programmer. It requires specific skilled workers including:

– Redactor: in charge of contents & information of every single subject

– Scenario designers

– Programmers

– Material Producers

Recently, people involved in E-Training in developing countries are not well professionally và systematically trained. Most of them are working và learning from experiences. Therefore, through this Pilot Project, we acknowledged the urgent need for establishing complete training fields on Electronic Education and Online Instructional khổng lồ cope with the great demands on human regiaidap.inforces.

At the beginning, we can provide courses and/or subjects about theorical và practical aspects of OL và DE, of E-Training for a group of IT students who will be working later as IT specialist in E-Training: web designer, webmaster and E-material programmer. The training curriculum for teachers’ training institutions will have sầu also to be completed with necessary and essential notions about the use of ICT in teaching – learning process. So, the future teacher in each area of specialty should be able teo co-operate efficiently with ICT speciacác mục in the production of E-materials.

E Training requires not only the human power in teaching, tutoring, as well as in designing websites và producing E-materials. The result of the E-Training system depends strongly also on personal working in the management of the whole Cyberschool / Virtual institution who require special criteria quite different with those who worked in traditional system of education and training.

In order to cope with this important demvà of a new kind of human power we propose to lớn create in some pilot Teachers’ Training institution a new department: Department of ICT Education or of E-Training, in order to provide well trained skilled human power for the development of E-Training in the future.

It is obvious that the realization of these proposals depends totally on the decision at least of the Ministry of Education và Training.

PART V – Systematic organizational solution

Together with the underdeveloped technical infrastructure, there are also other big disadvantages, which obstructed the possibility of developing E-Training in developing countries. First, the problem of low people’s cultural standard: People – Learners – have not enough know – how and the habits of getting in touch & of using ICT equipments & services. Second, the financial problem: The average income of the population is too low compared with the cost for using these equipments and services.

Besides, with the technical solutions mentioned in Part II, in the thesis the author proposed a group of feasible systematic – organizational solutions in order to lớn overcome previously mentioned disadvantages in developing countries.

5.1. Socialization of the dissemination of fundamental knowledge on IT

Presently, in Vietphái nam, every year on summer holidays, is organizing the movement of student-volunteers contributing lớn the development progress of the society. Many organizations of youth & students mobilized their members for moving in remote countryside và mountainous regions – some international organizations even skết thúc their member-volunteers to other undeveloped countries in order to participate khổng lồ “campaigns” of teaching to lớn illiterate population or of knowledge dissemination: in general knowledge of hygiene & medicine, of environment protection etc.

Since the last summers of the school year 2003-2004, 2004-2005 answering to the appeal of the Vietphái nam Student Association and the Vietnamese Youth Federation, many groups of student – volunteers from Technical institutions in all around the country have run a pilot project of teaching general IT knowledge for young people in the remote countryside và mountainous regions in some weeks time.

Based on the good experience of this project, the movement will be certainly developed with larger scale in the next future. To create a “E-learning Learner environment” the Vietnamese government will be able lớn rely on the contributions of non- governmental organizations: Vietnam giới Student Association, Vietnamese Youth Federation, Vietnam Woman Association, Vietnam giới Association of Sciences và Techniques, Vietnam giới Association of Information Processing etc. These social organizations can motivate their members for running many campaigns of IT knowledge dissemination for people in remote countryside and undeveloped mountainous region. Through these campaigns the population will have opportunity lớn step by step make acquaintance with ICT equipments và services.

For instance in the condition of Vietphái nam, if every year some 100-200 groups of volunteers (each group with 2-3 members) can be mobilized, then only in a 2-3 years time the use of ICT equipments & services will be widely popularized in around the country. Having had such elementary knowledge, many people will be not at fault in contact with ICT service & later with E-learning.

 

5.2. The Local Tutorial Center Network

Formerly (and also presently) in Distance Education, lớn enhance the interactive between Institutions, Teacher with Learner, Institutions running DE always organized many tutorial centers in different regions. From time lớn time, every month or every term, institutions skết thúc teachers – tutors (or recruiting local tutors from the same region) khổng lồ the centers. The centers then grouped all learners in the region for attending face-to-face session animated by tutors.

In E-Training, we can supplement necessary equipment to lớn these regional tutorial centers khổng lồ nâng cấp inkhổng lồ a Local Tutorial Center Network, which will be an effective sầu complement lớn the Virtual Institution.

The Center will be equipped with some LANs, each with some 20-30 users và a powerful hệ thống, linked with Internet by ADSL or high-tốc độ cable. Learners who have no personal computer or who cannot connect khổng lồ Internet at home will be able lớn arrange their own timetable coming lớn work at the Center.

At the user PC, learner can work by online high-speed contact with the Virtual Institution và will have to lớn pay lower fee compared with the use of dial-up connection at home. The Center can also download the sub-systems of Virtual Institution & learner can work offline with the server of the Center. All interactive will be proceeded in the LAN with high speed and high reliability & without Internet fees.

In the server of LAN the Center can also post many E-materials provided from the Institution for the choice for use of Learners (of course, these materials are much richer in contents than those posted on Website). The creation of such Network of Local Tutorial Centers can have sầu many advantages as follow:

– Providing free equipment for poor learners

– Providing Interactive services with low cost for learners

– Providing khổng lồ Learners opportunity not only contacting with the Virtual Institution but also using easily the rich system of E-materials.

At the present time, in Vietphái nam there is a system of Centers for Continuing Education (CFCE) located at every province & district in all around the country. The Department of Continuing Education (DOCE) at the MOET supervises this system of CFCE. These CFCEs are assigned by MOET in charge of the management of non-formal training, on-the-job training, & part time training in each & every region.

If the regional authority could provide more equipment to lớn CFCE, supply khổng lồ their staff with E-Training experts, a CFCE would be able khổng lồ take in charge of a comtháng Local Tutorial Center for many different Virtual Institutions in a region: The management fees for Virtual Institution will be shared aý muốn many institutions & the geographical distance from learner khổng lồ institution will be considerably shorter.

In some previously published analysis, the author has proposed a system of regulations for the co-operation & the co-ordination between the managers of Institutions, which are running DE, and the Managers of CFCE in ET.

 

CONCLUSION

E-Training is an inevitable change in Education và Training in this century, the century of Information Technology. Not only applying for mở cửa Learning and Distance Education, it is increasingly taking place in all Teaching and Learning process with its effectiveness.

Deployment of E-Training requires technical infrastructure và professional trained human regiaidap.inforces in terms of management và operation. On the other h&, different from traditional education, learners must understvà & frequently use ICT equipments and services. These conditions are the main barriers, which hinder the deployment of E-Training in developing countries.

In this report, author has recommended a system of general solutions, skilled human power formation, technical and systematic organization, in order to lớn overcome the basic obstacles. This contribution, with the purpose, is khổng lồ facilitate the deployment of E-Training quickly aao ước developing countries, including Vietphái nam.

After two years trial, practical results of the Pilot project: “Research on applied ICT in Distance Education”, organized by the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam was encouraging.

To be able to lớn practice E-Training, the most important factor is to draw attentions from Governments, especially the awareness of Education và Training Management Organizations in term of the role và capability of E-Training. It must be thoroughly consider applying to lớn the country’s system of Education & Training.

In the year 2003 – 2004, UNESCO – PROAPhường (Asia Pacific Region) has grouped some Universities và Institutions in the region lớn carry out a pilot project: “Pilot Project of the Virtual University in the Great Mekong sub region” including Hanoi mở cửa University, Vietphái nam – SukhoTnhì Thammathirat, Thái Lan – Yunnan Teacher Training College, China – Radio Television University of Yunnan, Đài Loan Trung Quốc. Attending the project there are also members of Ministries of Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar with the participant of UNESCO specialists from nước Australia và France etc.

Even it was only a pilot project in small scale (training only one certificate in Tourism), however this is an invaluable experience starting the International cooperation in the field of E-Training aý muốn developing countries with the tư vấn from other part of the world.

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Hoping that with the awareness and sufficient concerns of Governments và with the cooperation of experienced educational specialists, scientists around the world, E-Training will be quickly grown contributing to the socio-economic development in developing countries on the way moving toward integration with the world community.


Chuyên mục: Chia sẻ