Sewage là gì

Sewage versus Wastewater - What"s The Difference?

The terms ‘wastewater’ and ‘sewage’ are regularly used interchangeably, however there are differences between both. In fact, ‘sewage’ is considered a subset of wastewater.

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Although the term ‘sewage’ usually brings toilets lớn mind, it is used to describe all types of wastewater generated from domestic dwellings. There are two types of sewage: blackwater, or wastewater from toilets, & graywater, which is wastewater from all domestic sources except toilets. Blackwater và graywater have different characteristics, but both contain pollutants và disease-causing agents that require treatment.

Wastewater from non-residential sources generally require additional treatment steps than what is needed for sewage. For example, to lớn prevent flooding of treatment plants during bad weather, stormwater should be collected separately. Screens often remove rubbish & other large solids from storm sewers. In addition, many industries produce wastewater high in chemical and biological pollutants that can burden treatment systems. Dairy plants và breweries are perfect examples of this. To combat any issues these types of wastewater sources tkết thúc to provide their own treatment or preliminary treatment to lớn protect the main wastewater treatment system.

What is in Wastewater?

Wastewater is mostly water by weight. Other materials hóa trang only a small portion of wastewater, but can be present in large enough quantities khổng lồ endanger public health và the environment. Because practically anything that can be flushed down a nhà vệ sinh, drain, or sewer can be found in wastewater, even domestic sewage contains many potential pollutants. The wastewater components that should be of most concern to lớn homeowners & communities are those that have sầu the potential lớn cause disease or detrimental environmental effects.

Organisms

Many different types of organisms live in wastewater và some are essential contributors lớn treatment. A variety of bacteria work khổng lồ break down certain organic pollutants in wastewater by consuming them. Through this process, organisms turn wastes inkhổng lồ carbon dioxide và water.

Bacteria and other microorganisms are particularly plentiful in wastewater và accomplish a lot of the treatment. Most wastewater treatment systems are designed lớn rely in large part on biological processes.

Pathogens

Many disease-causing viruses, parasites, & bacteria also are present in wastewater and can enter from almost anywhere. Likely sources include hospitals, schools, farms, và food processing plants.

Some illnesses from wastewater-related sources are relatively comtháng. Gastroenteritis can result from a variety of pathogens in wastewater, and cases of illnesses caused by Cryptosporidium can also occur. Other important wastewater-related diseases include hepatitis A, typhoid, polio, cholera, và dysentery. Outbreaks of these diseases can occur as a result of drinking water from wells polluted by wastewater, eating contaminated fish, or recreational activities in polluted waters.

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Organic Matter

Large amounts of biodegradable materials are dangerous khổng lồ receiving waters such as lakes, streams, & oceans, because organisms use dissolved oxygene in the water to break down the wastes. This can reduce or deplete the supply of oxyren in the water needed by aquatic life, resulting in fish kills, odors, và overall degradation of water unique. The amount of oxyren organisms needed to lớn break down wastes in wastewater is referred lớn as the biochemical oxygene demand (BOD) & is one of the measurements used khổng lồ assess overall wastewater strength.

Some organic compounds are more stable than others and cannot be quickly broken down by organisms, posing an additional challenge for treatment. This is true of many synthetic organic compounds developed for agriculture and industry.

Inorganics

Inorganic minerals, metals, & compounds, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinch are comtháng in wastewater from both sewage and wastewater. They can originate from a variety of sources including industrial & commercial sources, stormwater, và inflow & infiltration from cracked pipes. Most inorganic substances are relatively stable, and cannot be broken down easily by organisms in wastewater.

Large amounts of many inorganic substances can contaminate soil and water. Some are toxic lớn animals và humans và may accumulate in the environment. For this reason, extra treatment steps are often required to remove inorganic materials from industrial wastewater sources. For example, heavy metals which are discharged with many types of industrial wastewaters, are difficult to remove sầu by conventional treatment methods.

Nutrients

Wastewater often contains large amounts of the nutrients nitrogen và phosphorus in the khung of nitrate và phosphate, which promote plant growth. Organisms only require small amounts of nutrients in biological treatment, so there normally is an excess available in treated wastewater. In severe cases, excessive nutrients in receiving waters cause algae and other plants lớn grow quickly depleting oxygen in the water. Deprived of oxygene, fish and other aquatic life die, emitting foul odours.

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Chuyên mục: Giải Đáp